Increasing mortality of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the US: are gender-specific risk factors important?

Samuel O. Antwi, Tushar Patel


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is an often-fatal malignancy, with an annual incidence rate that closely approximates the mortality rate (1,2). The poor prognosis of these cancers is due in part to their nonspecific clinical presentation and the often-late stage at diagnosis—which is not amenable to curative treatment.