Article Abstract

Organ-specific concept and controversy for premalignant lesions and carcinogenesis of gallbladder cancer

Authors: Keita Kai


An analysis of premalignant lesions, risk factors and models of carcinogenesis of gallbladder cancer (GBC) involves the concept of organ specificity. In GBC, the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence are considered to be more important models of carcinogenesis than the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Cholecystectomy is recommended for gallbladder polyps ≥1.0 cm, and all pre-invasive adenomas and papillary neoplasms ≥1.0 cm are defined as intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasms (ICPTNs). Although adenomyomatosis (ADM) and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) are controversial lesions, a knowledge of their clinicopathological features would help clinicians to manage gallbladder lesions associated with ADM or XCG.