Intra-operative trans-cystic indocyanine green (ICG) cholangiography: a high-sensitive method to identify bile leakage after hepatic resection

Piera Leon, Fabrizio Panaro


Liver resections are more and more performed worldwide. While mortality for hepatic surgery is decreasing over the time, morbidity is still high and mostly affected by bile leak which remain the Achilles’ heel of this type of surgery. Indeed, still 3% to 33% of patients present bile leak in the post-operative period (1).