Dual angiogenesis and PD-1 blockade in hepatocellular carcinoma

Julien Calderaro


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-death worldwide and its incidence is rising in most western countries (1). The majority of patients are unfortunately diagnosed with advanced disease not amenable to curative therapies such as surgical resection, percutaneous ablation or liver transplantation. The approved systemic therapies (including sorafenib, lenvatinib or regorafenib) have limited survival benefits and the identification of effective new drugs and/or combinations is critical (1).

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