Gut microbiota and hepatocellular carcinoma

Panzhi Wang, Kun Chen


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death globally, with 854,000 new cases and 810,000 deaths yearly (1). Due to the asymptomatic nature of early HCC, the majority of HCC patients are usually detected at middle or late stages by biopsy or imaging methods, for which there are no effective treatment options. Accumulating evidence showed that the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has limited diagnostic value because of the low sensitivity in HCC, only 10–20% of patients with early-stage HCC have increased serum AFP (2,3).

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