Immunotherapy in hepatobiliary tumors: search for the missing pieces of the puzzle

Matteo Donadon, Federica Marchesi, Lorenza Rimassa, Guido Torzilli


In the current era of immunotherapy, the treatment of hepatobiliary cancers is rapidly evolving. The use of immunotherapeutic approaches, which include peptide-based vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors and antibodies, particularly applies to advanced hepatobiliary cancers, for which the availability of limited therapeutic options encourages the adoption of alternative strategies. Thanks to the published/ presented, although conflicting, results of some of the clinical trials on this topic together with the incoming results of some other trials, clinicians involved in the cure of hepatobiliary cancer patients need to understand the basic and advanced applications of immunotherapies (1-6).