Preparing for liver surgery with “Alphabet Soup”: PVE, ALPPS, TAE-PVE, LVD and RL
Future liver remnant (FLR) is a critical limiting factor for treatment eligibility and postoperative prognosis when considering surgical hepatectomy. Pre-operative portal vein embolization (PVE) has been proven effective in modulating FLR and now widely accepted as a standard of care. However, PVE is not always effective due to potentially inadequate augmentation of the FLR as well as tumor progression while awaiting liver growth. These concerns have prompted exploration of alternative techniques: associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS), transarterial embolization-portal vein embolization (TAE-PVE), liver venous deprivation (LVD), and radiation lobectomy (RL). The article aims to review the principles and applications of PVE and these newer hepatic regenerative techniques.