Article Abstract

A prognostic nomogram for patients with resected fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors: Kelly J. Lafaro, Oliver S. Eng, Mustafa Raoof, Philip Ituarte, Susanne G. Warner, Gagandeep Singh, Yuman Fong, Laleh G. Melstrom


Background: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHC) is a unique entity compared to conventional hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine post-resection outcomes and prognostic indicators for survival in this group of FLHC patients.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) for patients with FLHC who underwent resection from 2004 to 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with overall survival, and a prognostic nomogram was generated.
Results: There were 197 patients identified, 171 (86.8%) of whom had long-term follow-up data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using patient and tumor demographics with the outcome variable of overall survival. On multivariate analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, P=0.003], vascular invasion (HR 1.75, P=0.05), tumor size >7 cm (HR 2.18, P=0.044), multifocal disease (HR 3.34, P=0.002), and node positive (pN+) disease (HR 2.75, P=0.003) were all negative predictors of overall survival. A prognostic nomogram was generated using these factors with a c-statistic superior to that of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging (0.710 vs. 0.654).
Conclusions: Independent predictors of decreased overall survival in patients with FLHC include age, vascular invasion, tumor size >7 cm, multifocal disease, and pN+ disease. This is the first study to develop a nomogram exclusively for FLHC that may predict survival in future studies.