Rising trends in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma incidence and mortality: getting at the root cause

Mustafa Raoof, Gagandeep Singh


Several epidemiologic studies over the years have demonstrated that there is a worldwide increase in the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) (1-5). Given the aggressive biology of ICC and poor survival, it is not surprising that the mortality rate mirrors the incidence rate (6).