Alcohol use in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver: a tangled web of causality

Danielle Brandman, Norah A. Terrault


Wine consumption was first associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in 1979 (1); subsequent studies, including several meta-analyses, showing a J-shaped association with modest alcohol consumption (especially for wine and beer) associated with a lower rate of cardiovascular complications and all-cause mortality, compared with abstention and heavy alcohol use (2).