Landscape of genomic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma: current knowledge and perspectives for targeted therapies
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly cancer worldwide characterized by a rising incidence and limited therapeutic options (1). HCC is associated with multiple risk factors, including chronic hepatitis B and C (HBV/HCV), alcohol intake, aflatoxin B1 exposure, diabetes and obesity. In addition, liver carcinogenesis is a long and multistep process associated with the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations resulting in tumor heterogeneity (1). Thus, each HCC tumor is characterized by a unique molecular fingerprint made of a specific combination of somatic alterations (2).