Updates in Mirizzi syndrome
Mirizzi syndrome, known as extrinsic bile compression syndrome, is a rare complication of cholecystitis and chronic cholelithiasis, secondary to the obliteration of the infundibulum of the gallbladder or cystic duct caused by the impact of one or more calculations in these anatomical structures, which leads to compression of the adjacent bile duct, resulting in partial or complete obstruction of the common hepatic duct, triggering liver dysfunction. Our aim is to identify and describe the current epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment of Mirizzi syndrome. A literature search was performed using different databases, including Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Medscape, PubMed, using keywords: Mirizzi syndrome, epidemiology, markers, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Selected original articles, review articles or case reports from 1997 to 2015 were collected, written in English or Spanish. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the most accurate diagnostic method. The traditional treatment has been surgery and involves an incision at the bottom of the gallbladder and calculus removal. If fistulas are observed, it is performed a partial cholecystectomy; otherwise, a cholecistocholedocoduodenostomy is an alternative. Endoscopic treatment includes biliary drainage and stone extraction. Many surgeons claim that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is contraindicated in Mirizzi syndrome because of the presence of inflammatory tissue and adhesions in the Calot’s triangle. If dissection is attempt, it can cause unnecessary injury to the bile duct. However, other surgeons consider the laparoscopic approach is feasible, although technically challenging. Currently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy for this condition is considered controversial and technically challenging; however, it has shown that with the right skills and equipment, it is a safe and feasible way to treat some cases of Mirizzi syndrome type I and II.